Growing up in my family, when one of the kids was worried about something, my Dad would say "What's the worst that could happen?" We'd go over it, and generally, it became clear that even if the worst scenario happened (no hits and many errors in baseball game), it wouldn't really be that bad. But when you look at the design of the ten reactors at two power stations in Fukushima Japan, and look at Dad's question, the answers aren't pretty. And perhaps, the answers aren't acceptable: (and I appologize in advance and ask for corrections in the comments for the errors that must be in this article...after all it comes from only a few hours of research)
Dad: What's the worst that can happen in a Boiling Water Reactor accident?
BWR Designer: Well, the worst case would seem to be an earthquake that damages the plant and then something that knocks out the emergency cooling systems.
Dad: What would happen then?
BWR Designer: The plant would shut down right away. The rods would go in, and the nuclear reaction would stop. (Hopefully, unless the earthquake shook the plant even worse than we could ever imagine.) But, the core still generates about 3% of the full power heat even in shutdown. The cooling systems must run to take away that heat.
Dad: What if the cooling systems got knocked out too?
BWR Designer: That's very unlikely. We have multiple backup diesel generators, and even batteries to run the cooling pumps for 8 hours if those don't work.
Dad: But lets just say something really bad happened. Maybe a tsunami from that same earthquake. It floods all the generators and knocks out the power grid. What happens then?
BWR Designer: The batteries keep the pumps going for eight hours, and by then a new source of backup power is set up and the cooling pumps are driven from that power.
Dad: But let's just say things are really a mess. Remember, we're talking here about "what's the worst that could happen." Let's say after the batteries run out, we can't get power to the pumps.
BWR Designer: This is a scenario that is not supposed to happen. You must keep the reactor core cooled or it will overheat.
Dad: What happens if the reactor core can't be cooled?
BWR Designer: Well, that's bad, but things can still be contolled. The core overheats, steam is produced. The steam flows down to the torus below the reactor, and that has a huge amount of water in it. This water supresses the pressure of the steam, keeps the containment intact in time for additional cooling to be brought to bear.
Dad: But what if that cooling is still not available?
BWR Designer: Now things are getting bad, but we thought of that too. Now the reactor is going to start making lots of steam. The reactor pressure vessel is designed to contain only a certain amount of pressure, so much like a pressure cooker, we have extensive pressure relief valves, and they will allow pressure to be released.
Dad: But what if those valves don't work right, or maybe our control systems are damaged and we can't run them.
BWR Designer: Okay, now you're getting to one of our worst case scenarios. If the pressure got too high in the Reactor Pressure Vessel, it could explode. And we have the same issue with next line of defense - the containment. In fact, early on three engineers at GE resigned because they believed the reactor was too vulnerable to pressure failure. We later agreed, and added pressure relief systems. (Editor's Note: As I understand it, they have been venting steam, and that steam, which also contains hydrogen and oxygen, caused explosions in the reactor buildings at Fukushima)
Dad: What happens if the Reactor Pressure Vessel or the Containment does explode from pressure buildup?
BWR Designer: That gets us to the the truly "worst case". In this case, the nuclear fuel is uncooled. It melts, creates intense heat and pressure, and the pressure vessel fails, probably explodes (but not a nuclear explosion...a pressure explosion). That explosion could probably explode the containment as well, and would carry radioactive fuel into the atmosphere. In the case of Chernobyl, the intense fire carried the radiation high to the jet stream. If we're lucky in this case, there won't be fire and the radiation won't spread as widely.
Dad: What happens if the Reactor Pressure Vessel and the containment doesn't explode, but you just can't get any cooling there?
BWR Designer: There's a lot debate about what would happen. Clearly, the nuclear fuel will heat up and melt. Clearly, lots of steam and pressure will be created. Hopefully, the melted mass will move down from the Reactor Pressure Vessel and meet the containment structure. At that point, we hope that the material begins to spread out and cool down, although there are some people who believe that this molten mass might be hot enough and concentrated enough to melt through the containment. At Three Mile Island, there was a partial meltdown, and the molten mass did not get close to penetrating the containment.
Dad: Well, we have to go all the way. What if the melted fuel did get through the containment?
BWR Designer: (Ed note: this answer is my summary of what I've read. Again please forgive errors and correct in the comments). First of all, we don't believe, but can't be certain that the melted fuel could re-gain "criticality" and begin producing large amounts of fission-based heat. So let's just assume it's a molten mass and gets through the containment. Now we expect it would meet water-bearing earth, large amounts of steam and other byproducts would be produced, and a pressure explosion of some sort could be expected. This explosion could then spread the radioactive fuel into the atmosphere.
Dad: So, have we arrived at the answer to what's the worst that could happen?
BWR Designer: Not really. These plants tend to be built in groups. In fact, Japan has been the most aggressive at using nuclear power. Because of cooling needs, these plants are located right near the water. So I guess if you want to really think about the absolute worst case scenario, maybe you could have a huge earthquake that shuts multiple plants down, but then something else like the tsunami and a widespread blackout that would disable all of the backup systems at an entire power station. For example, Fukushima I in Japan has six reactors located right next to the ocean.
Dad: So, have we arrived at the answer to what's the worst that could happen?
BWR Designer: Um, not really. One more thing. Since we don't really know how to store the spent fuel for the reactor, we keep it in a pool inside the reactor building and next to the Reactor Pressure Vessel. If something goes wrong with the cooling systems, this fuel, which also needs cooling, will begin to boil off the water that protects it and contains radiation. That could cause fuel rod melting, and could force workers away from the area of the building due to high radiation. Also, in the event of an explosion of the Reactor Pressure Vessel, the spent fuel right next to the reactor would also be spread into the atmosphere.
Dad: Okay, so you actually can imagine six reactors having catastrophic problems at once, involving all current and spent fuel from those reactors, and potentially releasing all that radiation into the atmoshpere?
BWR Designer: Imagine it, yes, but it's just absurdly unlikely. So many things would have go wrong at once, so many backups and backups of backups would have to fail at the same time for this to even get started, let alone occur.
Dad: But you could imagine it?
BWR Designer: Yes.
I started with Wikipedia, and found out that there are two power stations with the name Fukushima (I and II.) Fukushima I, the center of the current catastrophe, is the older station, and it lies about 14 miles north of Fukushima II. Amazingly, Fukushima I Unit 1 (the oldest of the 10 reactor units at Fukushima) was scheduled for end of life shutdown on March 26, 2011 (the end of its 40 year life).
Next, Wikipedia provided a list of all Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), where I found the 10 units described in this post. (There are two more planned for Fukushima I, but it seems construction has not started.)
This is a photo of my windshield wipers in action. Must be a howling wind. Look at how the blade is bent! (Note: the blade is straight! The iPhone camera is fooling us)
I'm parked in both pictures. In this one, the blade is not moving. The blade is correctly seen as straight, not curved. There is no wind. Not in either photo. Turns out that many camera phones save an image a line at a time. If something is in motion, it can appear curved because in the time it took to store the first line, the blade has moved. A picture doesn't lie. Really? How well do you understand the sensors you depend on?
You need to turn it off in the background.
Go to Control panel/administrative tools/system configuration/startup and untick both HP Advisor and HP Mediasmart
Re: Disabling the HP Advisor Dock
Re: HP Advisor / HP Dock launch at startup... How to Disable?
Here are step by step directions to help out with this if you cant understand from the others that said something similar.
Literally, step by step, and anyone should be able to do this.
1. Click the windows start button
2. in the text box where it says "search programs and files", Type run
3. Click on the run option, under the program header
4. Once the run box opens, type msconfig
5. Click the tab that says "Start Up"
6. Scroll through and find where it says "HP Advisor". Uncheck the box
7. Hit "ok"
open search, type "services.msc" open services.
Scroll down to "wlan auto config" right click, stop the service.
"C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Wlansvc\ delete everything in this folder leaving only a folder called "profiles" delete everything in the "profiles" folder except for a folder called "interfaces" delete everything in the "interfaces" folder)
Restart "wlan auto config" connect to your wireless network, enter
3. Wide support for Techstars from investors. TechStars Boston is now backed by a large list of local angel investors and VCs.
4. A four year commitment - We have raised enough money to support 40-50 new companies over the next four years, which means that TechStars Boston is on the firmest financial footing and can plan for the long term.
5. Enthusiastic Boston community has reached out to support TechStars including all the supporting services that make startups work.
6. We will be close to hundreds of other start-ups and the world’s smartest people.
7. Because we have TechStars NYC down the road!
8. 500+great applicants to the program and the progress they will make this year!
9. Katie Rae - TechStars Boston new Managing Director, Katie brings new energy and skill to running TechStars Boston. And TS has a bonus with Reed Sturtevant her partner in Project 11 also helping!
10. 10 (or 11) Great companies. The core of any TechStars session is the quality of the companies and the people in those companies. We've had over 500 applications to Boston this year, and we'll be picking the best ones!
Burkhardt built two large six-story Roxbury Puddingstone buildings and a large stable forming an L shaped enclosure around the adjacent Houghton and Company Vienna Brewery. Gottlieb, or George Burkhardt and his son, Gottlieb Jr., ran the brewery until Gottlieb Senior died in 1884. It continued brewing until Prohibition closed it in 1919. It stayed open, however, until 1929 producing cereal and other grain products during the dry period. Burkhardt made both beer and ale. Their labels were Tivoli Beer, Extra Lager Beer, and; starting in 1912, Red Sox Beer, to honor that year’s World Series Champions. They also made Augsburger Lager & Augsburger Dark, Salvator Lager, Brown Stock Lager and Bock style Lager. They produced over 100,000 barrels a year of beer alone, plus Golden Sheaf Ale, Cream Ale, Brown Stock Ale, Old Stock Porter, India Pale Ale and; also starting in 1912, Pennant Ale.
A third brewery, Habich “Norfolk” Brewery, active from 1874 to 1902, was located at 171 Cedar Street and occupied the same College site. Habich was the first Boston Brewery to make Lager beer in the 1850’s.
Beer making in Boston was in its heyday in the early 1900’s. Try to imagine the clatter of horse-drawn, iron-wheeled, wagons bringing raw materials in and finished product out of the 24 breweries in Roxbury and Jamaica Plain which were located on or near Columbus Avenue, Heath Street and Amory Street. Add the pungent odors of hops, yeast, slowly cooking grains and the coal and wood smoke billowing from each of the 24 smokestacks and you begin to sense the impact these breweries had on their neighborhoods.
And why were they located here? There are two simple reasons: abundant and crystal clear water from the aquifer along the Stony Brook along with artesian wells bubbling to the surface around Mission Hill; and the relatively cheap land after the City of Roxbury merged with Boston in 1868. These conditions, combined with the demand for the new German type Lager beers, drove the expansion of the industry locally.
Google Q3 09 Monthly Revenue $K
2009 Q3 earnings release Not quite true, but I'm assuming all revenue from search
Attached below is a PDF of my background calculations. This PDF was made from an Apple Numbers Spreadsheet.
Top 10 Search Providers for February 2010, Ranked by Searches (U.S.) Rank Provider Searches (000) Share of Searches All Search 9,174,408 100.0% 1 Google Search 5,980,116 65.2% 2 Yahoo! Search 1,294,261 14.1% 3 MSN/Windows Live/Bing Search 1,142,344 12.5% 4 AOL Search 206,969 2.3% 5 Ask.com Search 175,074 1.9% 6 My Web Search Search 91,288 1.0% 7 Comcast Search 55,122 0.6% 8 Yellow Pages Search 27,002 0.3% 9 NexTag Search 26,461 0.3% 10 WhitePages.com Network Search 24,681 0.3% Source: The Nielsen Company
Worldwide Search Market Overview by Region
Total Worldwide – Age 15+, Home/Work Locations
Source: comScore qSearch
Share (%) of Searches
Search Usage Days Per Searcher
Searches Per Searcher
Middle East - Africa