Detailed Analysis, Maps and Photos: Two Behemoths Fall: The Costa Concordia Cruise Ship and The Air Canada 767 "Gimli Glider"

The Costa Concordia. Photograph: Andrea Sinibaldi/AP

[See updates at end of article, and a new, detailed video showing exact track of the Costa Concordia]
 
As an engineer, I'm fascinated by giant machines. In particular, I love to understand how they work, and at time, why they don't work. This post is a story of two major accidents. One is currently unfolding in the Mediterranean near Corsica - the sinking of the cruise ship Costa Concordia, and the other happened almost 30 years ago when an Air Canada 767 ran out of fuel half way to its destination.
Air Canada Flight 143, July 23, 1983 ran out of fuel at 41,000 feet but the pilots managed to glide with no power to a safe landing at a former Canadian Air Force base that was in use for car racing. No one was killed, and the plane was put back into service. (photo by Wayne Glowacki, Winnipeg Free Press) 
Illustration: Dailymail.co.uk [Editors Note: This path turned out to be in error. The actual path is shown in the Jan 16 update below]
 
About two hours into the trip, the ship took a detour from its "usual" route to give passengers an up-close view of Giglio's port town by night, according to officials there. Upon approaching the port, the ship hit a rock that wasn't marked on nautical maps, Mr. Schettino, the captain, would later tell reporters. Instead, the ship struck Le Scole, a well-known rock formation, that skirts the coast of Giglio, according to the coast guard.
 
detailed article in the Daily Mail in the UK provides a map that seems to echo the WSJ article. That article noted from townspeople that ships usually pass to the west of the Isola del Giglio, not the east.
 
This Google Map overlay showing the track of the Costa Concordia also clearly shows that the normal shipping routes are to the west of the island. Note the blue track from the Costa Concordia, showing it to the east of the island.
 
Air Canada Flight 143

Meanwhile back in 1983, the Air Canada 767 took off from Ottawa for a flight to Edmonton. The 767 aircraft was brand new, and only a few had been delivered. Significantly, it measured fuel in the "modern" way ... in liters, instead of in Imperial Gallons, as earlier Air Candada aircraft had done. On this day, due to what should have been a minor problem, a technician had disabled one channel of a fuel monitoring system, not knowing that there was a problem with the other channel as well. 
 
As a result, the system did not show actual fuel levels during the flight. Next, the technicians on the ground used the wrong conversion factor from liters to Imperial Gallons to figure out how much fuel to load on the aircraft.  It was a huge error. Instead of 20,000 liters, they only added 5,000 liters. (See if you can follow the whole story...here's the full report in Wikipedia)
 
Since the fuel monitoring system had been partially inoperative, the pilot manually loaded the 20,000 liter figure into the system, (after double checking ground crew's math...but still with the wrong conversion factor.)
 
Half way to Edmonton, the 767 lost one engine, and very shortly, the other. A warning sound that they had never heard sound. They soon came to realize it meant all engines out. The captain, who was also a glider pilot put the plane into its best glide angle. The pilots calculated whether they could make it to Winnepeg, but decided they were too far away. The co-pilot, it turns out, had been stationed at Gimli before it closed, and even though it was not on their charts, he knew it was big enough and close enough to handle the 767. What he didn't know was that it had been converted to a drag strip and it was in use on this day.
 
So what caused the Air Canada accident? Simple human error. One wrong conversion that never got caught. One circuit breaker removed (and properly tagged) that shouldn't have mattered. The equipment worked as it was supposed to. When both engines failed, a ram air turbine dropped from the belly of the 767 to provide enough power to fly the aircraft. The pilot's great skill allowed them to make a safe (if precarious) landing.
As for the Costa Concordia, it looks like the cause of the disaster was simple as well. (I'm assuming the WSJ article is correct). The captain of the Costa Concordia wanted to give his passengers a lovely view of a small Italian town on a calm night. One bad decision that led to a calamity.
Costa Concordia's Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) being offloaded by Italian Coast Guard Source: Reuters

Will we know what happened on the Costa Concordia? Absolutely. Since 1999, international rules require most ships to have "black box" recorders much like airplanes. So, it's likely that the answers are all in the black box (which is actually orange, and appears to be a VDR 4350 from SAM Electronics
Cover photo from VDR 4350 Voyage Data Recorder from SAM Electronics (an L3 Communications Company)
Here's what the system records:
  • Speed log – Speed through water or speed over ground.
  • Gyro compass – Heading.
  • Radar – As displayed or AIS data if no off-the-shelf converter available for the Radar video.
  • Audio from the bridge, including bridge wings.  (Editor's note: This will be very important)
  • VHF radio communications.
  • Echo sounder – Depth under keel.
  • Main alarms – All IMO mandatory alarms.
  • Hull openings – Status of hull doors as indicated on the bridge.
  • Watertight & fire doors status as indicated on the bridge.
  • Hull stress – Accelerations and hull stresses.
  • Rudder – Order and feedback response.
  • Engine/Propeller – Order and feedback response.
  • Thrusters* – Status, direction, amount of thrust % or RPM.
  • Anemometer and weather vane – Wind speed and direction
  • Conclusion
    It seems to me that technology can be made to work remarkably well if we have the will to design our machines correctly. At the same time, it seems that human error can so easily slip in and overturn (literally) our best designs. Luckily, in both of these cases, large loss of life was prevented. In the case of the Air Canada flight this was due to the combined skill of the pilots, a well designed aircraft, and no small dose of luck. In the case of the Costa Concordia, the relatively small loss of life (compared to what it could have been) might be attributed to the good weather and the location of the incident so close to land.
     
    By the way, this article in the Telegraph pointed out that  the Costa Concordia did not fall over due to taking on water from one side. Rather, it is so tall that it it is not stable in water shallower than 26 feet, and that it is lying on its side because that's what it must do in shallow water. Note that the gash with the rock in it is facing up in all the photos. You would expect a gash to flood its own side and end up under water. The article is worth reading.
     
    Update January 16, 2011, 11:30 PM
     
    The basic elements of the article above are still correct, but there is now more clarity on certain items. For example, it appears that the Costa Concordia set out for the island from the beginning, and that the first time it hit a rock was when it reached the island. In addition, a savvy reader spotted markings on the Voyage Data Recorder to show that it's from another manufacturer.
     
    This animation shows the reports of the Costa Concordia's Automatic Identification System (AIS). This clearly shows that the Concordia set a course to Isola del Giglio soon after leaving its starting port. Note that this video is available in 720 HD. Select that and view in full screen. You can even see the ship turn around at the :36 mark in the video.

    This screen shot from the AIS video seems to show to course changes. The first seems to change the course from passing the island to the west, and instead passing to the east. The second course correction seems to take the Concordia directly towards the Isola del Giglio.

    Illustration: Guadian UK View Flash Animation
    This illustration seems to be the most accurate that I can find, and the easiest to understand. It looks like the Concordia came colse to Giglio, struck rocks near Le Scole, then continued north, only to turn south towards the port of Giglio, where it eventually became stuck on an an underwater outcropping and tipped over with the previously damaged side of the ship facing upward.
    Lastly, an eagle-eyed reader named Oliver Brandmueller wrote to me and pointed out that the Voyage Data Recorder on the Costa Concordia is actually an Avecs Bergen MER VDR. He also sent me a PDF brochure of the unit. (The website at www.avecs-bergen.de does not seem to work.) 
    The brochure shows how the data that is being replayed is displayed.
    Update Thursday, January 26, 2012
     
     
    This video, from the Costa Concorida News Page of John Konrad's blog, shows very detailed, AIS data recorded from a receiver on the island of Giglio, and narrated by John with tremendous insight from a ship captain. Watch and listen to the replay, and you'll feel like you finally have a clear idea of what happened. Data for the recording was provided by Quality Positioning Services BV (QPS), headquartered in Zeist, The Netherlands.
     
    This video shows, without a doubt, that the Costa Concordia slammed into known rocks because it approached the island too fast, and failed to turn soon enough given the momentum it had already built up. The ship turned, but still had motion (slipping sideways) towards the island and the rear of the ship slammed into well known rocks. For the captain to say he hit unmarked rocks is an unfathomable statement.
     
    It is truly hard to believe that after such a monumental collision, that the Captain of the Concordia would still insist that their only problem was a power blackout, even after getting immediate inquiries from the port of Giglio by radio. This fascinating recording of the radio exchange shows just how clearly Giglio interrogated the Concordia, and also how vigorously the crew insisted that there was no problem. It's only 30 seconds and its worth listening to.
     
    Recording of Captain Schettino Speaks With Gregorio De Falco of Italian Coast Guard

    This recording of Captain Schettino talking to the Coast Guard is one of the central elements of the drama that unfolded after the grounding. The captain had left the ship, along with his 2nd in command, and had landed on a nearby reef and was awaiting rescue. 
     
    Earlier Recording Where Captain Schettino Promises to Stay on the Ship
     
    The Italian Magistrate's Report
    There was a hearing to determine whether Captain Schettino would be jailed or otherwise held. The Magistrate's Report (PDF) is in English and contains some fascinating details, including this one: 
     
    ...it appears evident that, once having abandoned the ship, albeit in untimely fashion, he remained in place on the reef of Isola del Giglio where he had landed aboard a launch, and watched the ship sink at the mercy of the tragic event that was occurring (see the service report of Capt. Roberto Galli, Head of Area Security of the Municipality of Isola del Giglio, declarations made by Dimitros Christidis and by Stefano Iannelli and eyewitnesses, unambiguous on the point). 
     
    Voyage Data Recorder Was Inoperative
     
    Separately, this report from Thomas Gunn Navigation Services says that the Voyage Data Recorder Module removed from the ship was scheduled for repair the day AFTER the accident. But the key data was probably also available on hard drives: 
     
    A FAULT in Costa Concordia’s VDR was due to be repaired on 14 January, the day after it capsized, the company has confirmed. However, the problem only affected the 12-hour recording in the capsule itself, a spokesman assured Fairplay, not the two hard disks on the bridge, which held details of its last 24 hours and the previous 30 days. 
     
    Costa Concordia Links:
     
     
     
    4. http://www.es.northropgrumman.com/solutions/voyagemaster2/assets/VDR_S-VDRGuide.pdf  Detailed background about Voyage Data Recorder by Northrop Grumman.
     
    5. http://webstore.iec.ch/preview/info_iec61996-1%7Bed1.0%7Den.pdf  Specification for Voyage Data Recorders
     
    6. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2012/jan/15/costa-concordia-italian-cruise-ship-interactive  Interactive maps showing Guardian's view the Concordia's path. This does not match the illustration provided by the Daily Mail.
     
    7. http://marinetraffic.com/ais/default.aspx?oldmmsi=247158500&zoom=10&olddate=1/13/2012%209:02:00%20PM This site provides some recorded data of the Costa Concordia's path. This partial path matches what the Guardian is showing in the link above.
     
    8. http://www.seanews.com.tr/article/ACCIDENTS/74284/Costa-Concordia-accident-navigational-error/  This site claims to have the full course of the Costa Concordia, including a harrowing navigation between two small islands where they claim the Concordia hit the rocks. The MarineTraffic.com site data does not show the Costa Concordia passing through the two islands. A quick measurement on Google maps shows the gap in the islands to be about 200 feet. The Costa Concordia is about 120 feet wide.
     
    This video appears to be a playback from the MarineTraffic.com site. This seems to match the Guardian's (#6 above) very nice interactive illustration above.
     
    Gimli Glider (Air Canada 143) Links:
     
     
     
    3.   Gimli Glider fly-by on way to retirement
     
    4.  Gimli Glider three months before retirement

    Boston History: What Happened to My Beer? Exploring Boston's Lost Breweries

    While searching the online photo archives at the Boston Public Library, I came upon a collection called "Boston Brewery Posters." While looking at old maps of Boston, I was always struck with how many breweries there were.

    So, let's connect the maps with breweries, and see what stories unfold.
    Here's G.F. Burkhard's Bock Beer. But we need an address.
    A few Google searches later, and I find Burkhardt was located in Roxbury. This article about 
    Boston's Lost Breweries, is a treasure trove of information, and talks about Burkhardt:

    Burkhardt built two large six-story Roxbury Puddingstone buildings and a large stable forming an L shaped enclosure around the adjacent Houghton and Company Vienna Brewery. Gottlieb, or George Burkhardt and his son, Gottlieb Jr., ran the brewery until Gottlieb Senior died in 1884. It continued brewing until Prohibition closed it in 1919. It stayed open, however, until 1929 producing cereal and other grain products during the dry period. Burkhardt made both beer and ale. Their labels were Tivoli Beer, Extra Lager Beer, and; starting in 1912, Red Sox Beer, to honor that year’s World Series Champions. They also made Augsburger Lager & Augsburger Dark, Salvator Lager, Brown Stock Lager and Bock style Lager. They produced over 100,000 barrels a year of beer alone, plus Golden Sheaf Ale, Cream Ale, Brown Stock Ale, Old Stock Porter, India Pale Ale and; also starting in 1912, Pennant Ale.
    There's the brewery, taking a couple city blocks at Parker and Station Streets. This entire lot is now a parking lot in Roxbury. View the map here
    Here is a 1931 map of the area, with the buildings that are still standing today overlaid with grey.
    Here's the same map, with existing buildings overlaid in green for better contrast. Look at how much of Roxbury has been torn down and replaced since 1931!
    Zooming in. Wait, there appears to be two buildings (I missed them while making the map above) still on the block that was the brewery.
    How poignant that we can see the Pru and the Hancock at the same time as the remains of this block. Actually, this is another brewery, the A.J. Houghton & Co. “Vienna” Brewery. Located at Station and Halleck Streets, it was active from 1870 to 1918. Explore the area on Google Street View. From the Boston's Lost Breweries article: This is the only landmark brewery in Boston, having been protected by the Boston Landmarks Commission, despite its poor condition.
    A.J.Houghton & Co Brewery still stands in Roxbury.
    While this poster says the office was at 16 Arch Street near Milk Street in Boston, the brewery itself was at 1276 Columbus Avenue, the present site of Roxbury Community College.
    The Pfaff Brewery and the Norfolk Brewery were next to each other on the site that is now Roxbury Community College. Explore the map here. From the article:
    A third brewery, Habich “Norfolk” Brewery, active from 1874 to 1902, was located at 171 Cedar Street and occupied the same College site. Habich was the first Boston Brewery to make Lager beer in the 1850’s.

    Jacob Wirth is Boston's oldest remaining microbrewer. This poster is from 1875.
    Jacob Wirth was right in the middle of this 1888 Map of Boston.
    How cool is that: Jacob Wirth is still there, amazingly unchanged from 1868! Explore in Google Street View. So, what happened to my beer? It's all gone, except for Jacob Wirth's. In Boston.

    The Jamaica Plain Historical Society's excellent article tells the full story of 24 breweries that once dotted Roxbury and Jamaica Plain:

    Beer making in Boston was in its heyday in the early 1900’s. Try to imagine the clatter of horse-drawn, iron-wheeled, wagons bringing raw materials in and finished product out of the 24 breweries in Roxbury and Jamaica Plain which were located on or near Columbus Avenue, Heath Street and Amory Street. Add the pungent odors of hops, yeast, slowly cooking grains and the coal and wood smoke billowing from each of the 24 smokestacks and you begin to sense the impact these breweries had on their neighborhoods.

    And why were they located here? There are two simple reasons: abundant and crystal clear water from the aquifer along the Stony Brook along with artesian wells bubbling to the surface around Mission Hill; and the relatively cheap land after the City of Roxbury merged with Boston in 1868. These conditions, combined with the demand for the new German type Lager beers, drove the expansion of the industry locally.

    Boston History: What Connects the 1903 World Series, Northeastern University, and the YMCA?

    I actually started this look into Boston's past as part of my "railroads and where are they now" series. I had promised a look at three sites that used to be rail yards - the Pru, the Hancock, and Northeastern University. But, as soon as I started to dive into the first site, I just found too much, so this post is only about the site that is now Northeastern University.

    Well, there we are: two roundhouses and a bunch of tracks, right where Northeastern is.
    There's Northeastern's main campus, and overlaid on top is the old rail lines and the roundhouses. You can view this map and play with it yourself here
    On the other side of the tracks was a major league baseball stadium.
    Today, that site is a parking lot, in front of a building...that is...well... a parking garage. Oh, the ignominy of baseball history.
    Turns out that what I found was the South End Grounds. This was the home of the Boston Red Stockings, who eventually became...no, not the Red Sox...they became the Boston Braves, who stayed in Boston until the 1950s, then moved to Milwaukee, then to Atlanta. Oh, and by the way, the Braves Stadium that replaced this one called Braves Field and was located were Nickerson Field is at BU today. See this post for more. Okay, so what about the 1903 World Series?
    This 1902 map shows us exactly. In the Boston Atlas, we actually have 8 separate years of Bromley Atlas maps for Boston: 1883, 1888, 1890, 1895, 1902, 1908, 1917, 1928, and 1938. It's amazing what you can find out with that resource.
    Here's a photo of the 1903 World Series, played at the Huntington Avenue Grounds in Boston. You can see the railroad roundhouse clearly in the background, in the upper left.
    And we can see that the Huntington Avenue Grounds was right in the middle of the Northeastern Campus. (Which was a empty field right next to a railroad yard in the first map...from 1890) The caption in the Wikipedia listing says it was probably taken from the roof of a warehouse across the street.
    Sure enough, we see the Mass Fire Proof Storage & Warehouse across Huntington Ave. (Click the map to make it bigger.) Makes perfect sense. New TV show idea: CSI Maps. Where old crimes are solved using overlaid maps. Ah, but what's the connection the YMCA?
    I was looking at this 1938 map of the same area, and wondered: Why does it say Northeastern University of the Boston YMCA? That led me to this history of Northeastern University, which revealed the following: Northeastern University as started as part of the YMCA! The YMCA of Boston had a lecture program that quickly grew into courses, eventually became a college, and then:

    In recognition of the growth of the academic programs, Northeastern College was incorporated in 1916. Six years later, by permission of the Massachusetts General Court, its name was changed to Northeastern University of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association.

    So there you have it. Northeastern does occupy what used to be railroad yards on either side of the track. Buried under their campus and their parking lot is not one, but two historic major league baseball stadiums. One was the home of the 1903 World Series. The other was the home of the other Boston baseball team, the Braves. And the YMCA? I knew the YMCA was right there. I never knew that the YMCA is the reason that Northeastern is right next to the YMCA! And I learned all this by wandering around some old maps.

    What's The Connection Between a Roundhouse and The Cheesecake Factory?

    I love old aerial photos. Especially good ones, taken with high resolution cameras. This photo from about 1925 begins our journey. First, I challenge anyone to find a building that is still standing in this entire photo! The Old Garden? Gone. The office building next it? That's now the Tip O'Neil Building. The white building in the foreground? Old Department of Public Works. Gone. Now the County Prison. How about all the small buildings in the lower right. All gone. That was the West End, and it was wiped out in the 60's by urban renewal. In fact, as I look at this whole scene and follow it northward, I find that in a span of about 60 years, it's all been replaced. But that's another story. Today, we're looking for cheesecake.

    Here's the same view (roughly) taken using Google Earth.The new Garden was built just in front of the old one, and then the old one was torn down, leaving the parking lot that's there today.

    At the top of this photo from 1949, you can see construction of the Museum of Science. And on the very top, you'll see an old roundhouse where they would repair the locomotives and put them on the correct track. This series of historic aerial photos, taken in the late '40's by the State Department of Transportation are a great resource. 

    We see this roundhouse more clearly in this photo from January 15, 1950.

    This map shows that back in 1912, a blizzard of tracks emerge from North Station.

    By the time of this 2005 aerial photo composite, you can see that the railroads and the highways have all been pushed into a much more narrow corridor.

    This whole array of railroad frenzy seems far away, but in fact it's just a couple blocks from the Cambridgeside Galleria Mall, which borders the circular boat basin at the bottom of the picture.

    Here it is - two worlds from different times almost collide. The roundhouse almost across the street from the mall. They even had a separate building for "dining car supply.", Hmmm. They could have bought some cheesecake from....you know where. Sixty years later, it's only 700 feet away!

    Now the whole area is being reclaimed for development. Note all the green in this more recent view from Google Maps

    This is only the most recent story of railroads yielding to new city. Stay tuned for a look at three other areas that we take for granted that also used to be all about railroads: The Prudential Tower, The Hancock Tower (not the one you're thinking about) and most of Northeastern University along Huntington Ave.
    Here's a recent aerial photo from Bing Maps. I didn't mention it earlier, but did you notice the old prison in Charlestown? That's now the site of Bunker Hill Community College.